The use of fossil fuels in an internal combustion engine results in the release of CO2 gasses to thenatmosphere. These CO2 gasses are one of the main causes of global warming. Efforts are being made to improve the efficiency of the internal combustion engine but as it is a relatively mature technology so improvements have already been made. A large quantity of the energy in the fuel used for a car is converted into heat. A large proportion of this heat is present in the exhaust gases. An exhaust heat recovery system that would recover some of this heat and convert it into electricity to charge the car battery. The paper discusses the various ways by which the waste heat from the exhaust can be utilized to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and in turn, indirectly increasing the efficiency of the engine.
Let be a connected simple graph. A set ⊆ () is a doubly connected dominating set if it is dominating and both 〈 〉 and 〈 () 〉 are connected. A convex dominating set of is a convex doubly connected dominating set if is a doubly connected dominating set of . The convex doubly connected
domination number of , denoted by (), is the smallest cardinality of a convex doubly connected dominating set of . In this paper, we characterize the convex doubly connected dominating sets in the lexicographic and Cartesian product of two graphs and give some important results.
This research work focuses on sentiment analysis the detection of polarity and estimating the intensity of polarity of movie reviews. Internet movie database (IMDB) is the source of data named polarity dataset version 2.0 which is used in this research. There are 1000 reviews of movies for each category positive and negative. Unigram based Maximum likelihood algorithm is used which uses logarithmic likelihood ratios for estimating intensity and detection of polarity. This supervised technique is able to deal with complex sentences and detecting polarity of words. This approach uses unigram models to detect polarity and uses likelihood ratios for calculating the intensity. The results suggest that the sentiment analysis using unigram based maximum likelihood logic performs well.
The evolution of big data shaped innumerable possibilities in data analysis. Sentiment analysis (SA) refers to opinion mining which main task is to categorize public opinion into likely and unlikely opinions generally referred as positive and negative opinions. Another task of SA is to found the subjective and the objective expression of the writer’s opinion about the given text. The sentiment analysis can be performed at different levels such as document, sentence and word levels. This study focuses on the different technologies which are currently used in SA such as machine learning techniques including supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning techniques, lexicon based and hybrid techniques are most recently used in current research. We found that recent techniques are still unable to work on different languages and domains; current techniques are still unable to deal with complex sentences; classification based on labelled data set is also a challenging problem and requires more effort in this field.
Land mines (Anti-tank mines) that are designed to destroy the military armoured vehicles can also inflict life threatening injuries on to the occupant. This is mainly due to the high accelerations & impact forces imparted to the vehicle which ultimately gets transferred to the occupant through the structure and seat. The use of energy absorbing seat in conjunction with vehicle structure and advanced materials greatly improves occupant survivability in the event of high acceleration impact under the vehicle, such as mine explosion. The paper discusses the various design methodologies of blast attenuating seating systems.
Here a single item inventory model for deteriorating items without shortages under fuzzy sense is formulated and solved. Fuzziness is introduced by allowing cost components, demand rate, deterioration rate and the production rate. In fuzzy environment, demand, holding cost, set-up cost, deterioration cost, production rate, deterioration rate etc. are assumed to be pentagonal fuzzy numbers. The purpose of this model is to minimize the total cost function in fuzzy scenario. Signed distance method is employed to defuzzify the total cost function per unit time in fuzzy approach. We provide a numerical example to illustrate the theoretical result obtain by the above defuzzification method. Sensitivity analysis of parameters is also carried to detect the effect of change of their values.
In India, the population of Muslims is about 180 million and the majority of them live below poverty line and if non-Muslims are taken together this number reaches to about 77% of total Indian population, Microfinance is providing financial services to poor people, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services. The disaster of conventional microfinance in India in the state of Andhra Pradesh where hundreds of people committed suicide due to stress of non- payment of loans motivated the authors to study the Islamic microfinance model to eradicate poverty. Study on interest-free (Islamic) micro-finance for implementation in a country like India can be very helpful in eradicating poverty and developing micro-enterprises together with sustainable development of poor and country as a whole. While conventional microfinance institutions (MFIs) have expanded their operations in the last two decades, Islamic microfinance products are still quite small relative to the conventional microfinance sector. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to shed light on Islamic microfinance in Indian perpective.