A nanofluid is the suspension of nanoparticles in a base fluid. Nanofluids are promising fluids for heat transfer enhancement due to their anomalously high thermal conductivity. Cooling is essential for maintaining the desired performance and reliability over a very huge variety of products like electronic devices, computer, automobiles, high power laser system etc. Normally water, ethylene glycol and oil are being used as the fluid to carry away the heat in these devices. The development of nanofluid generally shows a better heat transfer characteristic than the water. This paper is an experimental study on the forced convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of a nanofluid consisting of water and different volume concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid. It is found that heat transfer characteristics improves for 0.2% to 2.0% volume fraction and then decreases.
Measuring banks performance is both necessary and vital.If the performance measurement is right, the data generated will tell the userwhere the business is, how it is doing, and where it is going.The Indian banking sector is constantly evolving. It is adopting international landmarks and best practices of transparency, disclosure and market discipline.Performance measurement is important to keep an organization in the right direction in achieving its goals. The Goals of any bank are related to multiple stakeholders such as Customers, Society, Government and Environment, Employees and the Shareholders. In accordance to these the performance benchmarks are multi-dimensional.The major performance measurement systems in use todayinclude: The Balanced Scorecard (BSC), Activity-Based Costing and Activity-BasedManagement (ABC and ABM), Economic Value Added (EVA), Total QualityManagement (TQM), Customer Value Analysis (CVA), Customer RelationshipManagement (CRM), Performance Prism, Profitability Measures (ROI, ROE, ROAand ROAA), Productivity Measures (per branch and per employee), CAMEL Model.